Decorator Pattern

Pattern Decorator refers to the structural design patterns.

The decorator is used as an alternative to inheritance to extend the functionality of classes.
There is the task of expanding the functionality of the application depending on the type of product. The customer needs three types of product – Basic, Professional, Ultimate.
Basic – counts the number of characters, Professional – features Basic + prints text in capital letters, Ultimate – Basic + Professional + prints text labeled ULTIMATE.
Implement using inheritance:


protocol Feature {
	func textOperation(text: String)
}

class BasicVersionFeature: Feature {
	func textOperation(text: String) {
		print("\(text.count)")
	}
}

class ProfessionalVersionFeature: BasicVersionFeature {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("\(text.uppercased())")
	}
}

class UltimateVersionFeature: ProfessionalVersionFeature {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("ULTIMATE: \(text)")
	}
}

let textToFormat = "Hello Decorator"

let basicProduct = BasicVersionFeature()
basicProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let professionalProduct = ProfessionalVersionFeature()
professionalProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let ultimateProduct = UltimateVersionFeature()
ultimateProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

Now there is a requirement to implement the product “Ultimate Light” – Basic + Ultimate, but without the capabilities of the Professional version. It happens the first OH! It is necessary to create a separate class for such a simple task, duplicate the code.
Continue the implementation using inheritance:


protocol Feature {
	func textOperation(text: String)
}

class BasicVersionFeature: Feature {
	func textOperation(text: String) {
		print("\(text.count)")
	}
}

class ProfessionalVersionFeature: BasicVersionFeature {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("\(text.uppercased())")
	}
}

class UltimateVersionFeature: ProfessionalVersionFeature {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("ULTIMATE: \(text)")
	}
}

class UltimateLightVersionFeature: BasicVersionFeature {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("ULTIMATE: \(text)")	
	}
}

let textToFormat = "Hello Decorator"

let basicProduct = BasicVersionFeature()
basicProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let professionalProduct = ProfessionalVersionFeature()
professionalProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let ultimateProduct = UltimateVersionFeature()
ultimateProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let ultimateLightProduct = UltimateLightVersionFeature()
ultimateLightProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

An example can be developed for clarity and further, but even now one can see the difficulty of supporting a system based on inheritance – hard maintenance and lack of flexibility.
A decorator is a set of protocol describing a functional, an abstract class containing a reference to a child-specific instance of a decorator class that extends the functionality.
Rewrite the example above using a pattern:


protocol Feature {
	func textOperation(text: String)
}

class FeatureDecorator: Feature {
	private var feature: Feature?
	
	init(feature: Feature? = nil) {
		self.feature = feature
	}
	
	func textOperation(text: String) {
		feature?.textOperation(text: text)
	}
}

class BasicVersionFeature: FeatureDecorator {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("\(text.count)")
	}
}

class ProfessionalVersionFeature: FeatureDecorator {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("\(text.uppercased())")
	}
}

class UltimateVersionFeature: FeatureDecorator {
	override func textOperation(text: String) {
		super.textOperation(text: text)
		print("ULTIMATE: \(text)")
	}
}

let textToFormat = "Hello Decorator"

let basicProduct = BasicVersionFeature(feature: UltimateVersionFeature())
basicProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let professionalProduct = ProfessionalVersionFeature(feature: UltimateVersionFeature())
professionalProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let ultimateProduct = BasicVersionFeature(feature: UltimateVersionFeature(feature: ProfessionalVersionFeature()))
ultimateProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

let ultimateLightProduct = BasicVersionFeature(feature: UltimateVersionFeature())
ultimateLightProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

Now we can create variations of the product of any type – just initialize the combined types at the stage of launching the application, the example below is the creation of the Ultimate + Professional version:

let ultimateProfessionalProduct = UltimateVersionFeature(feature: ProfessionalVersionFeature())
ultimateProfessionalProduct.textOperation(text: textToFormat)

References

https://refactoring.guru/design-patterns/decorator

Source Code

https://gitlab.com/demensdeum/patterns

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