Flyweight pattern

In this article I will describe the structural pattern “Flyweight”
This pattern refers to the group Structural Patterns.

Example of the pattern below:

Why is it needed? To save RAM memory. I agree that in times of widespread use of Java (which consumes cpu and memory just like that), this is not so important, but it’s worth it.
In the example above, only 40 objects are displayed, but if you raise their number to 120,000, the memory consumption will increase accordingly.
Let’s look at the memory consumption without using the flyweight pattern in the Chromium browser:

Without the use of the pattern, the memory consumption is ~ 300 megabytes.

Now add a pattern to the application and see the memory consumption:

With the use of the pattern, the memory consumption is ~ 200 megabytes, so we saved 100 megabytes of memory in the test application, in serious projects the difference can be much larger.

Wie funktioniert das?

In the example above, we draw 40 cats or, for clarity, 120 thousand. Each cat is loaded into memory as a png image, then in most renders it is converted into a bitmap for rendering (actually bmp), this is done for speed, since a compressed png is drawn for a very long time. Without using a pattern, we load 120 thousand pictures of cats into RAM and draw, but when using the lightweight pattern, we load one cat into memory and draw it 120 thousand times with different positions and transparency. All the magic lies in the fact that we implement the coordinates and transparency separately from the cat image, when rendering the render takes just one cat and uses an object with coordinates and transparency to correctly draw.

Show me the code

The following are examples for the Rise language.

Without a pattern:

The cat image is loaded for each object in the loop separately – catImage.

Using the pattern:

One cat picture is used by 120 thousand objects.

Real life example

It is used in GUI frameworks, for example, in Apple, in the “reuse” system of the cells of the UITableViewCell tables, which raise the entry threshold for beginners who do not know about this pattern.

Source code



The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Singleton

In this article I will describe my experience and the experience of my colleagues when working with the Singleton pattern, when working on different (successful and not so successful) projects. I will describe why I personally consider this pattern to not be used anywhere, I will also describe what psychological factors in the team influence the integration of this anti-pattern. Dedicated to all fallen and crippled developers who tried to understand why it all started with one of the team members who brought a cute little puppy, easy to use, does not require special care and knowledge to care for him, and ended up raising the beast, it requires more and more man-hours and eats the man-nerves of users, your money and heavily slow down new features implementation.

Wolf in sheep’s clothing by SarahRichterArt

The story takes place in an alternate universe, all coincidences is purely coincidental…

Pet a cat at home with Cat@Home

Every person sometimes has an overwhelming desire to pet a cat at some point in life. Analysts all over the world predict that the first startup that created the application for the delivery and rental of cats will be extremely popular, in the near future will be bought by Moogle for trillions of dollars. Soon it happens – the guy from Tyumen creates the Cat@Home application, and soon becomes a trillionaire, the Moogle company gets itself a new source of profit, and millions of people who are stressed out can order a cat on home.

Attack of the Clones

Extremely rich dentist from Murmansk Alexey Goloborodko, impressed with the article about Cat@Home from Фorbes, decides that he also wants to be astronomically rich. To achieve this goal, through his friends, he finds a company from Goldfield – Wakeboard DevPops that provides software development services, he orders the development of a Cat@Home clone from them.

The Dream Team

The project is called Fur&Pure, it is assigned to a talented development team of 20 people; further focus on the mobile development group of 5 people. Each team member gets his part of the work, armed with agile and scrum, the team completes the development on time (six months), without bugs, releases the application in the iStore, where it is rated by 100.000 users for 5 stars, many comments about how great the application and excellent service (alternative universe, after all). The cats are ironed, the application is released, everything seems to be going well. However, Moogle is not in a hurry to buy a startup for trillions of dollars, because not only cats, but also dogs have already appeared in Cat@Home.

The dogs bark, but the caravan moves

The owner of the application decides that it’s time to add dogs to the application, applies for an assessment to the company and receives estimation at least six months to add dogs to the application. In fact, the application will be written from scratch again. During this time, Moogle will add snakes, spiders and guinea pigs to the application, and Fur&Pur will only receive dogs.
Why did this happen? The lack of a flexible application architecture is to blame for everything, one of the most common factors is the design pattern anti-pattern Singleton.

Nah, can’t be

In order to order a cat at home, the customer needs to create an request and send it to the office, where they will process it at the office and send the courier with the cat, the courier will already receive payment for the service.
One of the programmers decides to create a class “RequestCat” with the required fields, and brings this class into the global application space through singleton. Why does he do it? To save time (penny saving for half an hour), it’s easier to make an global object than to think about the application architecture and use dependency injection. Then the rest of the developers pick up this global object and couple their classes to it. For example, all the screens themselves refer to the global object “RequestCat” and show the data on the application. As a result, such a monolithic application is being tested and released.
Everything seems to be fine, but suddenly a customer appears with the requirement to add an requests for dogs to the application. The team frantically begins to check how many components in the system will affect this change. At the end of the analysis, it turns out that 60 to 90% of the code needs to be altered to teach the application to take in the global singleton object not only the RequestCat but also the RequestDog, it is already useless to estimate the addition of other animals, it’s already difficult with two.

How to avoid singleton

First, during the requirements gathering phase, clearly indicate the need to create a flexible, extensible application architecture. Secondly, it is necessary to conduct an independent examination of the product code on the side, with the mandatory study of weak points. If you are a developer and you like singletons, then I suggest you think again before it’s too late, otherwise sleepless nights and scorched nerves are 100% guaranteed. If you work with a project, in which there are many singletons, then try to get rid of them as soon as possible, or from the project.
You need to switch from the antipattern of singleton-global objects / variables to dependency injection – the simplest design pattern in which all the necessary data is set to an instance of the class at the initialization stage without further need to be tied to global space.



Death Mask Dev Diary 1

The development of the game Death-Mask is in full swing, the logo of the Flame Steel Engine game engine has been added, the initial map selection screen for islands (green, red, black, white) has been added textures for walls, ceiling, maze floor, increased the size of the playing area.

Map of Red Zone City

Next, we plan to add 3D models for the environment, instead of Doom-style sprites, add models for weapons, boxes, enemies, friends. In the gameplay, it is planned to add currency, stores, the ability to buy parts of the game map indicating interesting places with loot, and the possible finding of the “Death Mask”. I also want to add the ability to hire companions for traveling through the cyber-labyrinth. Follow the news.


Zakaz – declarative language

I present to your attention a pure declarative programming language – Zakaz. The main idea of the new language is that the application contains commands for execution, written in any form, which must be executed by the “performers”. If no “executor” can execute the command, the execution of the program is stopped. Applications are called technical specifications (tez) and must have the extension .tez. Zakaz syntax obliges to observe two rules:

  • Each command starts with a new line.
  • Each command must be in a human readable formal language

Hello World.tez example:

Show "Hello World" text on screen
Show "Zakaz 'tez' example" text on screen

Example that prints description and open in Firefox browser

Show "Show website demo" text on screen
Show "You need Firefox installed on your system to run this 'tez', and it should be callable through \"system\" C function" text on screen
Show "Also there should be \"FirefoxPerformer\" assigned to Zakaz Runtime, please check manual for more information" text on screen
Show website with address "" in Firefox

The above example must be run along with the FirefoxPerformer, which is able to handle the last command for displaying the site via Firefox

./ZakazRuntime openDemensdeumSite.tez FirefoxPerformer

To implement your “Performer”, you must implement it as a dynamic library using the abstract class ZakazRuntime :: Performer, and return it along with a smart pointer from the method of the global function createPerformer (). As an example, you can use the implementation of FirefoxPerformer.

Source Code


С++ Application Plugins

In this post I will describe an example of adding functionality to a C ++ application using plugins. The practical part of the implementation for Linux is described; the theory can be found at the links at the end of the article.

Composition over inheritance!

To begin with, we will write a plugin – a function that we will call:

#include "iostream"

using namespace std;

extern "C" void extensionEntryPoint() {
	cout << "Extension entry point called" << endl;

Next, we will build the plugin as a dynamic library “”, which we will connect in the future:
clang++ -shared -fPIC extension.cpp -o

Next we write the main application that will load the file “”, look for a pointer to the function “extensionEntryPoint” there, and call it, typing errors if necessary:

#include "iostream"
#include "dlfcn.h"

using namespace std;

typedef void (*VoidFunctionPointer)();	

int main (int argc, char *argv[]) {

	cout << "C++ Plugins Example" << endl;

	auto extensionHandle = dlopen("./", RTLD_LAZY);
	if (!extensionHandle) {
		string errorString = dlerror();
		throw runtime_error(errorString);

	auto functionPointer = VoidFunctionPointer();
	functionPointer = (VoidFunctionPointer) dlsym(extensionHandle, "extensionEntryPoint");
	auto dlsymError = dlerror();
 	if (dlsymError) {
		string errorString = dlerror();
		throw runtime_error(errorString);



The dlopen function returns a handler for working with a dynamic library; dlsym function returns a pointer to the required function by string; dlerror contains a pointer to the string with the error text, if any.

Next, build the main application, copy the file of the dynamic library in the folder with it and run. The output should be the “Extension entry point called”

Difficult moments include the lack of a single standard for working with dynamic libraries, because of this there is a need to export the function to a relatively global scope with extern C; the difference in working with different operating systems associated with this subtlety of work; the lack of a C ++ interface to implement OOP approach to working with dynamic libraries, however, there are open-source wrappers, for example m-renaud/libdlibxx

Example Source Code



Порхай как Мишель

[Feel the power of Artificial Intelligence]
В данной заметке я расскажу как предсказывать будущее.

В статистике существует класс задач – анализ временных рядов. Имея дату и значение некой переменной, можно прогнозировать значение этой переменной в будущем.
Поначалу я хотел реализовать решение данной задачи на TensorFlow, однако нашел библиотеку Prophet от Facebook.
Prophet позволяет делать прогноз на основе данных (csv), содержащих колонки даты (ds) и значения переменной (y). О том как с ней работать, можно узнать в документации на официальном сайте в разделе Quick Start
В качестве датасета я использовал выгрузку в csv с сайта, при реализации я использовал язык R и Prophet API для него. R мне очень понравился, так как его синтаксис упрощает работу с большими массивами данных, позволяет писать проще, допускать меньше ошибок, чем при работе с обычными языками (Python), так как пришлось бы работать с лямбда выражениями, а в R уже все лямбда выражения.
Для того чтобы не подготавливать данные к обработке, я использовал пакет anytime, который умеет переводить строки в дату, без предварительной обработки. Конвертация строк валюты в number осуществляется с помощью пакета readr.

В результате я получил прогноз по которому биткоин будет стоить 8400$ к концу 2019 года, а курс доллара будет 61 руб. Стоит ли верить данным прогнозам? Лично я считаю что не стоит, т.к. нельзя использовать математические методы, не понимая их сущности.


Исходный код